The Minnesota Department of Commerce retained Michaels Energy to complete a study on the performance, emissions, and economic analysis of Minnesota geothermal heat pumps.

The primary purpose of this project was to determine the difference in energy consumption, user costs, and amounts of pollutants and carbon dioxide emissions for Ground Source Heat Pumps (GHPs) as compared to conventional Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems in Minnesota residential, commercial and institutional buildings used for heating and cooling air and water heating, and; identify current installations of GHPs, available financial incentives, manufacturers and installers, economic development potential, and barriers to more widespread, cost effective use of the technology in Minnesota.